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Graphing Rubric

Graph Rubric

The Perfect Multi-line Graph Points


The legend (key) is done correctly. The standard of comparison (control)

and all of the experimental groups are clearly described.


X axis properly labeled with units.

X axis numbered properly, equal intervals, starts from zero if appropriate.

Y axis properly labeled with units

Y axis numbered properly, equal intervals, starts from zero if appropriate.

Title tells both the manipulated variable and the responding variable.

The data is graphed correctly.



J. Norling Locker
10/18/16 1:18 PM
11/20/13 3:56 PM
1/4/15 12:59 PM
6/11/13 12:22 PM
9/25/17 8:41 AM
11/1/13 9:08 AM
10/28/13 7:32 PM
10/28/13 7:33 PM
10/28/13 7:36 PM
11/1/13 9:14 AM
11/1/13 9:09 AM

J. Norling

The Graphing and the Critical Thinking Test were both very challenging!

Dear parents,


Please keep in mind that the Graphing Test and the Critical Thinking Test were both very challenging.  All of the questions were about applying knowledge, these were not simple memorizing questions.  If your student did not do great on this test, don't panic.  It takes time to develop critical thinking skills, by the end of this year their ability to write a clear answer that is supported by evidence will really impress you.  For now,  please give them support and let them know it is ok not to be perfect when learning a new and difficult skill.

The Future we Want for our Fishery

The Future We Want for This Fishery!  (First Period)

  1. Fishers are able to make a living and send kids to school while the fish remains at maximum capacity.
  2. We want to monitor/control the amount of fish taken.
  3. WE want beautiful coral ecosystems.
  4. We want healthy ecosystems.
  5. Balanced food web.
  6. WE want high biodiversity.  Lots of species of fish and other creature, more predators and really big fish.
  7. More possible fish species to harvest.
  8. Tourists + Scientist and fishermen SPENDING CASH in the community!


The Future We Want for This Fishery!  (Second Period)

  1.  The fishers understand and want to take care of their fishery.
  2. ***Non-profit fisheries.  Awesomely radical idea – could we make this work?
  3. No harmful fishing methods are used. Protecting ecosystems, increases both reproductive rate, carrying capacity.
  4. A sustainable environment.
  5. Fish are old enough that they have a high reproductive rate.
  6. Large harvests so that the fishers make a good living.
  7. Healthy fish, higher spawning amounts
  8. Fishers plan their areas and know the information they need to, so they can maintain the fish.  Avoid areas of eggs and small fish and super big fish.
  9. An abundance of fish.
  10. Non-polluted waters.
  11. Monitor the amount of predators – keep at healthy levels.
  12. Respecting species.
  13. Promoting tourism by protecting coral, variety of species.
  14. Healthy food.
  15. Regulation of fishing amounts.
  16. No fishing areas – sanctuaries
  17. Great educational opportunities.  Next generation learns how to manage.
  18. No trash, clean beaches. Plastics are not going into the ocean.
  19. Money from scientists, tourists and recreational fishermen for the community.
  20. Banned fishing methods – dynamite, cyanide, bottom trawling,

The Future We Want for This Fishery!  (Third Period)

  1.  Managing the fishery so that each type of fish has enough time to reproduce.  Stable reproduction. No bycatch or overfishing.
  2. Fishers are making money in the community.  Less fishers on the lake,  $$ for college.
  3. Close  to home fishing.
  4. Protected fish area – sanctuaries
  5. Increase carrying capacity of the fishery.
  6. Learn and use old fishing methods.
  7. See lots of big fish.  Lots of females spawning.  Rising fish pop, beautiful  coral, Heathy marine food web.  Many species – biodiversity.
  8. More tourism $$$$$$
  9. Everyone working together.
  10. The fishers are managing how much they take to keep the fishery sustainable, enforced laws, the fishers work together, they care about fish habitat, Monitoring, Talk to each other when there is a problem.  Change amounts of fish depending on population of fish.  Education in how to manage fisheries.
  11. Removing invasive species – people who are snorkeling collect invasives, will need equipment, motivation, training, experienced people to help.
  12. Selective fishing – alternating  between two species.
  13. Healthy ecosystems – What does that look like?
  14. Ownership of the area, community pride in the area they take care of.

Course Outline


7th Grade Honors Life Science

Room 40

Welcome. I am excited to be your teacher for the year; together we will explore a wide range of life science topics. Most of our learning will be in-line with the California Life Science content standards with an emphasis on the new NGSS Science and Engineering Practices. I encourage all students to explore their own science interests. As your teacher, I am here to help you succeed! This paper provides you with a course outline, procedures, and student expectations. Please sign and have your parents sign this paper; you are agreeing to all of these guidelines. Keep this paper in your science folder for reference.

Contact Information and Resources (for students and parents)

Phone/ Voice mail: 793-9090 x 58040 email:

School Loop:

Course Outline

7th Grade Science focuses on life science. Some of the topics that will be covered are Sustaining Biodiversity and Ecosystems in a Changing World, Matter and Energy Flow in Living Systems and FLASH (family life and sexual health). Using the Next Generation Science Standards, we will begin to master the following Science and Engineering practices:

1. Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering)

2. Developing and using models

3. Planning and carrying out investigations

4. Analyzing and interpreting data

5. Using mathematics and computational thinking

6. Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering)

7. Engaging in argument from evidence

8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

Course Materials

Notebook to be used for science only

Science folder to be used for science only

Three sharpened pencils, pens BLUE or BLACK ink

Two different colors of highlighters

School Agenda

For completing projects at home you should have:

• Crayons, markers or colored pencils

Tape, glue, or paste


Computer /Technology Terms of Usage

1. Classroom computers are to be used only for science related work (no inappropriate web sites, social communication, or game playing).

2. Students must only use the computer that has been assigned to them.

3. Settings may not be changed or altered.

4. When in doubt about anything, ask.

Any computer/technology misuse will result in immediate loss of privileges, zero on the assignment, and /or disciplinary action.

Classroom Expectations

1. Respect your teacher, classmates, and classroom.

2. Be prepared. Bring all required school supplies daily.

3. Be on time and in your seat before the bell rings.

4. Be cooperative.

5. Be safe,

6. BE HONEST: Plagiarism, copying (or allowing other students to copy your work), cheating, and forgery of parent signature will all result in a zero on the assignment, an automatic office referral and a detention.

Possible Consequences

Parent contact, detention, loss of lab privileges, and/ or office referral

Grading Policy

Classwork, notebook, homework, labs, projects and participation – 60%

Tests and Quizzes – 40%

There is NO extra credit

The grading scale is the following:

90-100% =A 80-89% = B 70-79% = C 60-69% = D ≤ 59%= F

Late Work and Absences

Late work is not accepted as a practice; however exceptions may be made on a case-by-case basis. You will be asked to provide a written explanation for any missing work.

If you are absent, it is your responsibility to ask for make-up work; you are responsible for all missed work.

I have read and understood these guidelines. I am willing to accept responsibility for my learning and I will do my part to maintain a safe and comfortable classroom environment.

Student Name (Print): ________________________________________________ Period: ____________

Student Signature: ____________________________________________________ Date: _____________

Parent/Guardian Signature: __________________________________________Date:__________________

Practice your Chemistry

Chemistry Websites!

This is the slide show about bonds -


Mrs. Norling's Contact Information

E-mail:  please use the student's first and last name and class period in the subject line.

Phone: 793-9090 ext. 58040 

Science has Tests and Quizzes on ODD days.

Antibiotic Resistance Resources

Google   -     Antibiotic TED ED Video      or go to the website below


ARTICLES that you read in class are all found below.


NGSS Antibiotic Resistance Assessment Tasks


When Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in the 1920s, the field of medicine was revolutionized.   Antibiotics like penicillin are chemicals that inhibit the growth of bacteria or cause them to die.  While your body naturally contains many different types of helpful bacteria that protect the body and aid digestion, some bacteria are harmful to us; for example, E.coli can cause food poisoning, and Staphylococcus aureus can cause skin and respiratory infections.  Antibiotics are a way to help our immune system fight off bacterial infections that in the past may have resulted in death. 

Over time, however, the wide spread use of antibiotics has led to the development of resistant strains of bacteria.  Infectious diseases such as staphylococcal infection are becoming increasingly difficult to treat because the bacteria that cause them are becoming resistant, through mutations and natural selection, to the antibiotics used to treat them.  New types of antibiotics are being developed, but bacteria continue to develop resistance to these new medicines.  This antibiotic resistance makes it difficult to eliminate infections because existing medicines are becoming less effective.  Thus, diseases that were once highly treatable are now becoming a problem once again. 

People who are infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria require longer hospital stays and may require more expensive and complicated treatments.  The National Institutes of Health estimate that 5-10% of all hospital patients develop some type of infection while in the hospital.  In 1992, an estimated 13,300 people died from infections that they developed in the hospital, compared to an estimated 90,000 patients who died for the same reason in 2011.  The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that antibiotic resistance in the United States costs $20 billion each year for additional health care and $35 billion in lost productivity   (NIH website- accessed April 2014). 

Bacterial genes are found on one circular chromosome containing a few thousand genes.  Bacteria reproduce asexually.  Reproduction involves only one parent rather than two parents.  The single chromosome is copied and the cell divides into two daughter cells that are genetically identical to the original cell unless a mutation occurs.  When a mutation does occur, it can cause a new genetic trait that could equally harm or help the bacteria depending on the environment it is living in.   One example of a genetic trait that can provide an advantage to bacteria is the development of antibiotic resistance.  Bacteria can die or their growth can be inhibited when they are exposed to an antibiotic.  If a mutation causes a trait to develop in a bacterium that blocks an antibiotic, then the bacterium is protected from the harming effects of that antibiotic.  There are many different types of antibiotics, so the development of resistance to one type does not guarantee resistance to other types.


Super-Superbugs: Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria May Be Deadlier

By Rachael Rettner, Senior Writer | July 22, 2015 02:00pm ET


A scanning electron micrograph image of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria, which can acquire antibiotic-resistance genes.  Credit: CDC/Janice Haney Carr

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria may be tougher superbugs than previously thought: Not only are these bacteria harder to treat, they appear to be "fitter" in general, meaning they survive better in the host and cause more deadly infections, a new study suggests.

The findings go against the prevailing view in medicine that when bacteria acquire resistance to drugs, they become less "fit" in some way, for example, they spread less easily. Although scientists have assumed this is true, evidence supporting this view is limited, the researchers said.

In the new study, the researchers examined the effect of genes on antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, bacteria that cause lung infections. They found that mice infected with antibiotic-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa were more likely to die (without any type of treatment) during the study period than mice infected with P. aeruginosa strains that did not have antibiotic resistance. The antibiotic-resistant strains were also better able to kill certain immune cells (the body's defenses against bacteria and other pathogens).

"A potentially overlooked consequence of the acquisition of antimicrobial resistance could be enhanced fitness and virulence of pathogens," wrote the researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston in today's (July 22) issue of the journal Science Translational Medicine. The finding "raises a serious concern that drug-resistant strains might be better fit to cause serious, more difficult to treat infections, beyond just the issues raised by the complexity of antibiotic treatment," they said.

The researchers also had similar findings for two other strains of bacteria: Acinetobacter baumannii, which causes infections in people in hospitals, and Vibrio cholera, which causes the diarrheal disease cholera. For example, V. cholera bacteria with certain genes for antibiotic resistance were better able to grow in the gastrointestinal tracts of rabbits than bacteria without these genes.

"Our results show that efforts to confront the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance might be exacerbated by fitness advantages that enhance virulence in drug-resistant microbes," the researchers wrote.  The findings also "emphasize the necessity to effectively control the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens as well as the development of alternative approaches to prevent and treat infections," they wrote.

Dr. Amesh Adalja, an infectious-disease specialist and a senior associate at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center's Center for Health Security, said the new findings were not completely surprising. That's because mutations that allow bacteria to resist certain antibiotics can have other effects as well, including boosting the bacteria's ability to survive. "It's not just a simple trade-off," between genes for antibiotic resistance and pathogen fitness, said Adalja, who was not involved in the study.  Adalja also noted that researchers have discovered bacteria in caves that are resistant to many antibiotics, even though these bacteria have never had contact with humans, or been exposed to antibiotic drugs. Bacteria likely evolved to have these resistance genes a long time ago, to defend themselves against other bacteria, or help them survive in other ways, Adalja said.

"Antibiotics resistance isn’t just something that happened after the discovery of penicillin," Adalja said.The findings show that there may always be some level of antibiotic resistance, even if doctors improve the way they use antibiotics. "There may be limits to what antibiotic stewardship can do," Adalja said.

This means stopping antibiotic resistance will require more than just judicious use of antibiotic, Adalja said. Researchers need to develop treatments and prevention methods that work in ways that are different from antibiotics, such as drugs that target certain bacterial toxins, or new vaccines, Adalja said.         







The Global Threat of Antibiotic Resistance

03/07/2016 11:41 am ET | Updated Mar 07, 2016  By Drs. David Niesel and Norbert Herzog, Medical Discovery News

The rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is reaching epidemic proportions, and if new antibiotics aren’t created to combat even common bacterial infections, we may find ourselves without the ability to combat even the common illnesses. Can you imagine going back to the dark ages before penicillin?

While first-world countries use the most antibiotics, a new report reveals that antibiotic use in second- and third-world countries is steadily increasing. While this may be good in terms of treating and preventing diseases, it has some serious consequences for the global threat of antibiotic resistance. As researchers wrote in a recent report, “When it comes to antibiotic resistance, the rich pay with their wallets and the poor pay with their lives.”

The use of antibiotics grew by an astounding 30 percent from 2000-2010, and according to the report, “Antibiotic use drives antibiotic resistance.” The countries with the biggest increases in antibiotic use were India and South Africa. You can track antibiotic use and resistance worldwide on the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy’s website. Three dangerous antibiotic-resistant bacteria, commonly called superbugs, to public health are E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Between 2008 and 2014, the incidence of multiple drug resistance in Klebsiella doubled. Doctors in India are using an antibiotic of last resort to fight Klebsiella infections.

There are multiple ways bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics. Bacteria can create new ways to function, subverting antibiotics completely. They can change sites within themselves where drugs act, rendering the antibiotics ineffective. They can actively pump antibiotics out to remove them. They can produce enzymes that alter or destroy drugs. Bacteria can even work together, forming a dense barrier called a biofilm that prevents antibiotics from reaching them. Bacteria are always reinventing themselves, and they can do so quickly.

The new report also promotes six strategies that belong in every country’s plan to control the growth of antibiotic resistance. The first is to prevent bacterial infections by improving sanitation, water quality and immunization rates. The second strategy is to lower hospital infections and therefore the overuse of antibiotics by improving hygiene and surveillance and creating an antibiotic use protocol. The third is to change the incentives that lead to antibiotic overuse. There are powerful incentives for hospitals, doctors, communities and agriculture industries that lead to antibiotic overuse. The fourth step is to phase out the practice of using antibiotics to promote livestock growth. China, the U.S. and Brazil are the biggest offenders when it comes to agricultural misuse of antibiotics, totaling almost 30,000 tons in 2010. The final two recommendations are efforts to educate medical providers, policy makers and citizens about responsible use of antibiotics. Public awareness campaigns, political commitment and sensible guidelines can change expectations for antibiotic use.

The only way we are going to solve the spread of antibiotic resistance is with a global focus. With thousands of travelers crisscrossing the world daily, the quick spread of infections is a real threat. This is problem that we all face, and one we must solve together.   Medical Discovery News is hosted by professors Norbert Herzog at Quinnipiac University, and David Niesel of the University of Texas Medical Branch. Learn more at

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The Danger of Antibiotic Overuse

Every year, your family probably faces its share of colds, sore throats, and viruses. When you bring your child to the doctor for these illnesses, do you automatically expect a prescription for antibiotics?

Many parents do. And they're surprised, maybe even angry, if they leave the doctor's office empty-handed — after all, what parent doesn't want their kid to get well as quickly as possible? But your doctor could be doing you and your child a favor by not reaching for the prescription pad.

How Antibiotics Work

Antibiotics, first used in the 1940s, are certainly one of the great advances in medicine. But overprescribing them has resulted in the development of resistant bacteria, that don't respond to antibiotics that may have worked in the past. Plus, whenever kids take antibiotics they run the risk of side-effects, such as stomach upset and diarrhea or even an allergic reaction.

To understand how antibiotics work, it helps to know about the two major types of germs that can make people sick: bacteria and viruses. Although certain bacteria and viruses cause diseases with similar symptoms, the ways these two organisms multiply and spread illness are different:

  • Bacteria are living organisms existing as single cells. Bacteria are everywhere and most don't cause any harm, and in some cases may be beneficial. Lactobacillus, for example, lives in the intestine and helps digest food.

    But some bacteria are harmful and can cause illness by invading the human body, multiplying, and interfering with normal bodily processes. Antibiotics are effective against bacteria because they work to kill these living organisms by stopping their growth and reproduction.
  • Viruses, on the other hand, are not alive and cannot exist on their own — they are particles containing genetic material wrapped in a protein coat. Viruses grow and reproduce only after they've invaded other living cells.

    The body's immune system can fight off some viruses before they cause illness, but others (colds, for example) must simply run their course. Antibiotics do not work against viruses.

Why It's Harmful to Overuse Them

Taking antibiotics for colds and other viral illnesses not only won't work, but it can also have dangerous side effects — over time, this practice actually helps create bacteria that are harder to kill.

Frequent and inappropriate use of antibiotics can cause bacteria or other microbes to change so antibiotics don’t work against them. This is called bacterial resistance or antibiotic resistance. Treating these resistant bacteria requires higher doses of medicine or stronger antibiotics. Because of antibiotic overuse, certain bacteria have become resistant to even the most powerful antibiotics available today.

Antibiotic resistance is a widespread problem, and one that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) calls "one of the world's most pressing public health problems." Bacteria that were once highly responsive to antibiotics have become more and more resistant. Among those that are becoming harder to treat are pneumococcal infections (which cause pneumonia, ear infections, sinus infections, and meningitis), skin infections, and tuberculosis.

In addition to antibiotic resistance, overusing antibiotics can lead to other problems. Antibiotics kill many different bacteria, even the good ones that help keep the body healthy. Sometimes taking antibiotics can cause a person to develop diarrhea due to a lack of good bacteria that help digest food properly. In some cases, bad bacteria, like Clostridium difficile (or C diff), may overgrow and cause infections.

Taking Antibiotics Safely

So what should you do when your child gets sick? To minimize the risk of bacterial resistance, keep these tips in mind:

  • Take antibiotics only for bacterial infections. It's a good idea to let milder illnesses (especially those thought to be caused by viruses) run their course. This helps prevent antibiotic-resistant germs from developing. But leave it to your doctor to decide if an illness is "mild" or not. Even if the symptoms don't get worse but do last a while, take your child to the doctor.
  • Seek advice and ask questions. Ask your doctor about whether your child's illness is bacterial or viral, and discuss the risks and benefits of antibiotics. If it's a virus, ask about ways to treat symptoms. Don't pressure your doctor to prescribe antibiotics.

Ask your doctor about ways to treat the symptoms that are making your child uncomfortable, such as a stuffy nose or scratchy throat. The key to building a good relationship with your doctor is open communication, so work together toward that goal.

Remember: Antibiotics can only treat bacterial infection if taken for the full amount of time prescribed by the doctor Talk to your pharmacist if you're unsure about how to give your child the right dose. The medicines take time to work, too, so don't expect your child to feel better after taking the first dose. It may take a child 1 to 2 days to feel better. Similarly, don't let your child take antibiotics longer than prescribed.

And most important, never use antibiotics that have been lying around your home. And never give your child antibiotics that were prescribed for another family member or adult. Saving antibiotics "for the next time" is a bad idea, too. Any remaining antibiotics should be thrown out as soon as your child has taken the full course of medicine as prescribed.

Help fight antibiotic resistance by taking simple steps to prevent the spread of infections. Encourage hand washing, make sure your kids are up to date on immunizations, and keep kids out of school when they're sick.

Reviewed by: Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph, MD      Date reviewed: September 2015



How do antibiotics work?

by Maria Trimarchi     from  accessed 2016

Antibiotics vs. Bacteria

 Antibiotics work in one of a few ways: by either interfering with the bacteria's ability to repair its damaged DNA, by stopping the bacteria's ability to make what it needs to grow new cells, or by weakening the bacteria's cell wall until it bursts.

Most antibiotics on the market are considered broad spectrum, which means they are effective against a lot of different types of bacteria.  Fluoroquinolones (used to treat infections ranging from urinary tract infections to pneumonia and anthrax) and tetracyclines (used to treat everything from acne to gonorrhea as well as stomach ulcers) are both examples of  broad spectrum antibiotics -- these antibiotics can clear up many types of bacterial infections. Narrow spectrum antibiotics, on the other hand, are effective against specific, targeted groups of bacteria .

Quinolones, for instance, are a type of broad-spectrum antibiotic that kills bacteria using hydroxyl radicals, which are molecules that destroy the lipids and proteins that make up a cell's membrane and damage the bacteria’s  DNA, halting replication.

Penicillins, an example of narrow-spectrum antibiotics, work by destroying the structure of the cell wall, the layer that holds the whole cell together; glycopeptide antibiotics also go to work on the structure of a cell wall, specifically preventing  bacteria from being able to build new walls -- and a cell can't live without the wall that holds all of its innards, well, inside.

Instead of destroying a cell from the outside, like penicillin, some antibiotics block a cell's ability to make what it needs to proliferate from the inside out. Macrolide antibiotics are protein synthesis inhibitors; for example, the common macrolide antibiotic erythromycin works by binding to specific molecules on the bacteria’ ribosomes, destroying the cell's ability to form the proteins it needs for cell growth. Sulfa antibiotics (sulfonamides) have been used to battle bacterial infections since the 1930s. They target specific chemical reactions within a cell by binding to a specific enzyme so the bacteria it can no longer grow or multiply.






Sky City Residence Plan

skycity6 residence.png

Sky city info - diagrams below

Sky City

 1.5 billion dollars to build

Houses – 17,000 people in 5000 apartments.

Contains hospitals, offices, shops, hotels, theaters, basketball and tennis courts, a swimming pool,  schools, interior vertical gardens.

15 cm of insulation in the walls

Triple paned windows with a solar shield that rolls down when the sun is shining on the window.

104 elevators

Earthquake proof to 9.0 on the Richter scale.

Future City Websites     - Describes Broad Sustainable Buildings  (BSB)  - Watch BSB build a 30 story building in 15 days.  Innovations for Energy for huge cities


Fossil Mini-project

Mars Colony Brain Storm Ideas from all classes

Mars Utopia:  From 4th period  (scroll down to see all of the classes)

CO2 waste can be directed to plants

When someone dies you use them as fertilizer

C. Hopkins Café restaurant chain, with water filtering fountain

6 types of careers – children will take a test to decide their careers,

 all kids get an education – racial equality is taught

15 years old to take part in government

Limit population growth

On the surface you could have some observatories

Use stuff from meteorites to build

Solar panels power, biofuels, wind power, exercise energy,

All electronic waste will be burned and then the metals separated and sent to the industry

Crime execute –

No racists

Medical field excellent – replace organs with criminals

No wars

Racial diversity  in original colonists and religious

Live in apartments to take up less space

Six groups each with a leader to make policy

Equal distribution of wealth

Human waste is  turned to fertilizer

Tamper with human genetics


Engineers, scientists, farmers, medical and rescue, child care/teachers, construction

Work hours and recreation hours

5th period ideas MARS COLONY

Wind turbines – electricity

Desalination factory – to purify urine toilets

Nuclear fusion

Underground bases – building materials that is hard and flexible, and air tight, can handle extreme temperature change,

Dome – air lock

Citys connected by tunnels

Bacteria in tubes

Waste -  burn it to make electricity

Convert waste into energy

Methane – bacteria breaking down waste

Oxygen problem

Launching waste into space – the waste would surround us, hits satellites, could hit asteroid belt,

Waste has nutrients CHONPS

E-waste has rare metals




 Use air filters that bring O2 in and exclude CO2

Plants needs the CO2 – separate place for plants

Materials to build everything – send from earth – rockets are expensive and we don’t have limitless materials

Machine to filter out carbon from CO2

Use different sources of energy, use water found on Mars, solar energy, wind power

Will dust storms damage solar panels or windmills?

Pump CO2 into the rocks

Send robots to build industry

Compost and human waste gets decomposed

No smoking

Take vitamins instead of milk

Train humans to use less oxygen, like the humans on top of mountains

Filter the urine – get nitrogen, throw out the rest of the chemicals.

Compost all the trash, all materials are biodegradable, reuse anything that we can

Burn waste that we can’t reuse – will burning cause more pollution?   We have too much CO2 already  We need robots to settle mars.

Make robots solar powered.

Modify humans to create less waste,

Be vegetarians to make less waste, animals make waste

Use nuclear energy.  It could explode. 

Send young people  or short people

Make most buildings underground,

Drink water – not milk, cows make a lot of waste.

Use waste as a fertilizer, shread paper and use for mulch

Plant more plants to clean up air pollution

Mining – use all the materials removed from the ground to make all of our plates and stuff.

A pond with fish and plants, grind them into bone meal

Store water as ice

Use hydroponics

Don’t use plastics at all

Send short, fat  old vegetarians to Mars


Fix or use as many parts as you can

Take the broken parts – melt and separate and collect the metals

Do upgrades

Use the plastic to make new products

Launch into the sun.

How will we deal with diseases?

In case every things breaks down we should have multiple  sources of energy.



Insect Qu. #2 Model Answer

The new insecticide that kills all insects except for bees should not be sprayed.

Insects will eventually become resistant to this pesticide.  As seen in the Colorado potato beetle graph, this pest has become resistant to over 50 different insecticides.

Using pesticides to control pest insects can be dangerous to human health.  In the Ecotipping points article the town of Punukula used pesticides even after the insects had developed resistance.  As the farmers sprayed more and more pesticide, they became ill with headaches and nausea from pesticide poisoning, some even died. 

The food web would collapse if all of the insects in an area were killed.  Herbivore insects feed birds, small mammals, reptiles, amphibians and spiders.  If there is no prey, these predator populations will die or migrate away.


We should not use this pesticide because insects will eventually develop resistance, increased use of pesticide might hurt human health and it could destroy the ecosystem where it is sprayed.

Ecotipping Points

Getting Clean: Recovering from Pesticide Addiction

Author: Gerald Marten and Donna Glee Williams

You can sum up the economics of addiction in a few short words: Sell a product that makes buyers need it more.  Mega-fortunes have been made on this principle. But the alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, and narcotics industries are limited by the puny calculus of addicting individuals one at a time. The agricultural chemical industry has a higher vision: chemical dependence that can ensnare whole bioregions.

About two decades ago, cotton came to the Khamman district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Seduced by the agro-chemical industry, farmers turned from traditional varied food-crops to cotton farming with pesticides. Pesticide-resistant insects developed and thrived. To fight them, farmers poured on even more insecticides, going into debt, worsening the resistance problem, and creating severe health troubles for their community.

The introduction of cotton had pushed them past an eco-tipping point, an abrupt shift between sustainability and unsustainability. This “tip” landed them in the trap of agricultural addiction to chemical pesticides. This scenario has been replayed in so many thousands of villages that it would not be news if it weren’t for one thing: Eco-tipping points are not one-way streets. A farming community called Punukula kicked the chemical habit and sent the pesticide-pushers on their way. “Just saying no” to pesticides tipped their environment back toward an agriculture that cultivated not just cotton, but also the health of individuals, the community, and the ecosystem. Today, Punukula’s model of pesticide-free agriculture is spreading to villages throughout the region.

How did a little village stop the flood of chemicals that threatened to drown it in debt, illness, and ecological devastation? Metaphorically, they dropped a rock into the current right where it could change the course of the stream. Like other eco-tipping point stories with happy endings, Punukula’s involves setting in motion catalytic changes that cascade through the entire system, turning it back in the direction that nourishes life.

Getting Hooked: Tipping Toward Ruin

About twenty years ago, a handful of families migrated from the Guntur district into Punukula, a farming community of about 900 people where a household typically cultivates 2-10 acres. The outsiders from Guntur brought cotton-culture with them. Cotton wooed farmers by promising to bring in more hard cash than the mixed crops they were already growing to eat and sell: millet, sorghum, groundnuts, pigeon peas, mung beans, chili, and rice. But raising cotton meant pesticides and fertilizers. These chemical inputs were a mystery to the Punukulans, and there were no agricultural extension services for these poor, small-scale, mostly illiterate dirt farmers to lean on.

Local agro-chemical dealers obligingly filled the need for information and supplies. These “middlemen” sold commercial seeds, fertilizers, and insecticides on credit and guaranteed purchase of the crop. They offered technical advice (flavored by a soupçon of self-interest) provided by the companies that supplied their products: Bayer, Syngenta, Dupont, Monsanto, and Denosyl. The farmers depended on the dealers. If they wanted to raise cotton—and they did—they had no choice.

Booming yields and incomes were the quick “high” that hooked growers during the early years of cotton in the region. Expenses for insecticides were fairly low because cotton pests hadn’t moved in yet. Many farmers were so impressed with the chemicals that they started using them on their other crops as well. The immediate payoffs from chemically-dependent cotton agriculture both ensured and obscured the fact that the black dirt fields had “tipped” into a freefall of environmental degradation, dragged down by a chain of cause-and-effect.

Attracted by the rich monoculture banquet the farmers laid out for them, cotton-eaters like cotton bollworms (Helicoverpa armigera), pink bollworms (Pectinophora gossypeilla), cotton leafworms (Spodoptera litura), leafhoppers, and aphids plagued the fields. Repeated spraying killed off the most susceptible pests and left the strongest to reproduce and pass their resistance on to generations of ever-hardier offspring. As the bugs grew tougher and more abundant, farmers applied a greater variety and quantity of poisons, sometimes mixing “cocktails” of as many as ten insecticides. At the same time, cotton was gobbling up the nutrients in the soil, leaving the growers no option but to invest in chemical fertilizers.

Pesticide addiction pulled everyone and everything along in a net of interlocking feedback loops and chain-reactions that trussed up both the ecosystem and the social system. As outlays for fertilizers and insecticides escalated, the cost of producing cotton mounted. Eventually the expense of chemical inputs outgrew the cash value of the crop. Because farmers bought seeds and chemicals on credit, as their incomes shriveled more of their livelihood was eaten up by interest on what they owed. They fell further and further into debt, compelling them to work even harder. When poverty pinches from every side, family survival may even compel indenturing child labor. Education goes by the board, ensuring more generations of poverty.

The addiction to agricultural chemicals affected health as well as pocketbook. All members of farm families shared the work of spraying the fields with insecticides. They did this without training, which limited the chemicals’ effectiveness—meaning they used more than they needed. Lacking information about safe storage, disposal, and use, everyone was exposed to toxic effects, including women and children. Insecticide poisoning became common. People developed chronic health problems such as headaches, nausea, skin rashes, fatigue, mental symptoms, and visual problems, as well as acute poisoning that required hospitalization and sometimes caused permanent neurological damage or death. Humans were not the only victims. Cows and goats died when they grazed too near treated fields.

Nothing but cotton offered the potential to bring in the cash people needed to pay off their dealers, money lenders, and medical bills. By the time some farmers tried to break free of their chemical dependence, insecticides had already decimated the birds, wasps, beetles, spiders, and other predators that had once provided natural control of crop pests. Without their balancing presence, pests ran riot if insecticide use was cut back. The farmers were hooked.

In a negative environmental tip, the head-spinning whirl of vicious cycles seems overwhelming. Some farmers escaped to different places, different work. Others resorted to illegal activities, such as teak smuggling, to cope with their debts. When so many links of cause and effect are pulling you toward the abyss, disaster can look inevitable. Despair comes easily. Suicide became increasingly common among the farmers, the favored method being ingestion of insecticide.


Non-Pesticide Management Article

The Solution: Non-Pesticide Management (NPM)

Non-Pesticide Management (NPM) provides a set of natural alternatives to chemical pesticides. It was assembled by the Center for Sustainable Agriculture in Hyderabad in collaboration with agricultural entomologists at the state university. The core of the NPM strategy is use of the neem tree. Neem seeds are ground into a powder that is soaked overnight in water and sprayed onto the crop. To be effective, it is necessary to spray at least every ten days. Neem does not directly kill insects on the crop. It acts as a repellent, protecting the crop from damage. The insects starve and die within a few days. Neem also suppresses the hatching of pest insects from their eggs. Neem is not only much less expensive than chemical insecticides, it also has the advantage of not killing predatory insects that provide natural control of pest insects. Neem leaves can be used to protect stored grain from damage due to insect such as weevils, and neem cake can be applied to the soil. Neem cake kills pest insects in the soil while serving as an organic fertilizer high in nitrogen.

The use of neem is complemented by other methods in the NPM toolkit:

  • Spraying chili-garlic solution on the cotton. The solution is prepared by soaking chili and garlic powder in water for 24 hours. Chili-garlic solution kills pest insects directly when sprayed on a crop.
  • Applying a mixture cow dung and urine to combat leaf hoppers and aphids. Cow dung/urine acts as a repellent and disrupts insect growth.
  • Manual removal of leaves that are heavily infested with pest insects.
  • Planting "trap crops" (e.g., sorghum, marigold, castor, and green gum) around the edge of the field to attract pest insects away from the crop. The trap crops are checked daily. Parts of the plants with insect eggs are removed and burned.
  • Putting yellow and white wooden disks in the fields. The yellow disks, which attract sucking insects (e.g., mites and thrips), and white disks which attracts white flies, are covered with sticky grease to trap the insects. Lighting small bonfires on moonless nights to attract and kill moths before they can lay eggs in the field.
  • Placing perches for insectivorous birds in the fields.
  • Deep summer plowing to destroy the pupae of cotton bollworms, army worms and other pests whose pupae are in the soil.
  • Applying a "nuclear polyhedral" virus extract. Pest larvae attacked by this virus are easily recognized because they are hanging upside down from leaf edges if the crop. Farmers collect 250 infected larvae, grind them into a solution, and spray the solution on the crop. The solution from 250 larvae ("250 LE") is sufficient to kill the larvae on one acre of cotton crop.
  • Using inexpensive pheromone tablets to attract pest insects in order to monitor their abundance. Neem, chili-garlic, or cow dung/urine are sprayed on crops only when and where they are really needed.

Escape from the pesticide trap was initiated by K. Venu Madhav. Venu Madhav grew up in a farm family where he used insecticides and saw his father go into debt with their use. He also saw people in his village suffering from insecticide poisoning. The fact that his father formulated and distributed natural medicines made him responsive to what he later learned about alternative methods for controlling pest insects. He was working on a watershed project for a local NGO called SECURE (Socio-Economic and Cultural Upliftment in Rural Environment) when he came across a woman who was successfully controlling cotton pests with alternatives to chemical pesticides.

My wife Ann and I visited SECURE in Gattaigudem (Andhra Pradesh) during March 25-27, 2005 to learn first-hand about the story. In 1998 Venu Madhav and other SECURE staff, with support from the Centre for World Solidarity in Secunderabad (Andhra Pradesh), started talking to the farmers in Punukula, a village of approximately 900 inhabitants, about Non-Pesticide Management (NPM) for their cotton. The village landscape is agricultural with scattered trees. The average landholding is 5 acres (range 2-10 acres). SECURE was already doing a watershed project in the village.

The farmers were skeptical that NPM would work, but the following year, after persistent promotion of NPM by SECURE, one farmer (Margam Mutthaiah), an influential village elder in Punukula, gave it a try. He was highly motivated to do so because his son had recently passed out from insecticide poisoning. The hospital bill was 18,000 rupees, a staggering sum for a village family.

Margam's results with NPM farming were good enough to stimulate twenty farmers to try NPM in 1999. SECURE posted two staff people (a man and a woman) full time in the village to:

  • Provide displays, audio-visual materials, and practical demonstrations to explain NPM methods to the farmers;
  • Assist farmers with the details of implementing NPM in their fields;
  • Engage them in a continuous dialogue of "participatory problem solving."

Women had a key role in getting NPM off the ground. They prodded their husbands to pursue NPM, and to do it properly. They contributed to the work in numerous ways such as preparing neem and chili-garlic solutions. Although neem trees are naturally common over much of the Indian landscape, there were not many in Punukula village because they had previously been logged for paper pulp. However, there were enough neem trees scattered around the fields for the women to collect the seeds they needed.

Although neem trees are naturally common over much of the Indian landscape, there were no neem trees in Punukula village because they had previously been logged for paper pulp. To get started with NPM, it was necessary for SECURE to supply neem seed from an outside source.

The harvest of the twenty NPM farmers was as good as the harvest of farmers using insecticides, and they achieved it without spending money on insecticides. Starting in 2000, all the farmers in Punukula village used NPM for cotton, and they started to use it on other crops as well. NPM became even more effective once everyone was using it. Fields were no longer infested by pest insect outbreaks on neighboring fields. In 2004 the Punukula panchayat (local government) formally declared Punukula to be a pesticide-free village.

Once NPM was in place, the farmers of Punukula started to make vermi-compost (earthworm compost) with a mixture of cow and buffalo manure, dried leaves, and rice straw, applying the compost to their fields instead of chemical fertilizer. The compost has eliminated cash outlays for chemical fertilizers and provided other benefits as well. We were told that food grown with vermi-compost, when cooked and stored without refrigeration, will last for a longer time without spoiling than food grown with chemical fertilizers. We also were told that crops grown with compost are less attractive to insect pests than crops grown with chemical fertilizers. Composting is not without difficulties. The supply of cow manure is limited. Most families have fewer cows than in the past.

We visited Punukula village with K. Surendra Babu (SECURE's education director), who arranged for us to talk with a group of villagers. He translated for us. The villagers that we talked to confirmed what we had heard from other sources. They were enthusiastic about what NPM had done for their village, projecting a strong sense of well being and optimism about the future.

The villagers told us that NPM has brought noticeable changes to the village environment. Insecticide containers no longer litter the village, and the village no longer smells of insecticides. Birds have returned, and so have insects that prey on cotton pests. The natural control that birds and predatory insects provide has allowed the farmers to reduce the intensity of their NPM activities. Some farmers do not need to spray neem or chili-garlic at all. The farmers have become "citizen scientists" who can monitor pest insect populations in their fields and adjust their use of NPM methods to changing conditions.

Health problems due to insecticides have disappeared. Before NPM, there were dozens of cases of acute pesticide poisoning every year. Now there are none. NPM Villagers said that they didn't realize how much the insecticides were sapping their energy until they experienced how much better they felt after stopping their use of insecticides. With assistance from SECURE, village women have augmented their use of traditional medicine, and SECURE is encouraging the women to pass on their knowledge of traditional medicine to their children.

There have been substantial improvements in farmer income. Farmers are substituting labor inputs for cash inputs when they use NPM and composting. A farm family that uses chemical insecticides needs about 100 man-days of labor for a cotton crop, while a family that uses NPM must invest 100-125 man-days to produce the crop. The benefit of NPM comes from a reduction in cash inputs. The typical cost of chemical insecticides for one cotton crop is 6,000-8,000 rupees/acre. The cost for seed and chemical fertilizer is about 4,000 rupees/acre. The lease cost for land not owned by a farmer is 2,000 rupees/acre. A typical harvest is 7-9 quintals/acre, and it sells for 1600 rupees/quintal, so a farmer typically receives about 14,000 rupees/acre for his cotton crop. As a consequence, NPM and composting have an enormous impact on the cash income from cotton. A farmer who does not own the land and uses chemical fertilizers and insecticides will realize a net gain of only 1,000 or 2,000 rupees/acre while a farmer who uses NPM and composting can expect to earn more than 10,000 rupees/acre.

Some families have used their extra income for home improvements. Others have used the money to increase their livestock. Some families have found it worthwhile to use some of their extra income to hire farm labor for help with the labor inputs of NPM. The wage for farm labor has increased from 25 rupees/day to 30 rupees/day. Most of the villagers are paying off their debts. Some are already out of debt, and others expect to clear their debt within two or three years. There have been no suicides.

The increase in income has given farmers the ability to increase the area of land they cultivate by leasing land that is not in use. The demand for leased land has been so great that all land in the village is now under cultivation.

There have been even further-reaching effects on village society. Village solidarity and the confidence to take on new entrepreneurial ventures have increased. So has the status of women and their opportunities for new activities. For example, neem has become a source of income for some of the village women, who collect seeds from the surrounding area and use simple equipment to grind the neem seed into powder. They sell the powder for NPM in other villages. An attempt to set up a nursery for neem has not been successful.

Villagers are no longer timid about demanding appropriate attention from the government. During the first few years of the NPM project, villagers took their problems to SECURE, but once the village developed a capacity to identify and articulate its needs, SECURE encouraged villagers to take their problems to the government. Improvements in village infrastructure have a major role in their plans for the future. A facility to produce safe drinking water is at the top of the list. Education for their children is also a top priority, and they now have some money to do something about it.

Microbe Mutations Article

Microbial Mutations  edited from Microbe World (2015)

Mutations (mew-tay-shuns) are misspellings or changes in the genetic code. They're pretty rare; only about one mutation occurs for every 1-10 million DNA bases.

But microbes reproduce very quickly. For example some bacteria can divide every nine minutes. And the entire DNA string or genome (gee-nome) of microbes is relatively small. For example, the average bacterium has only about five million DNA bases. So in each new generation of bacteria, there may be one or two mistakes in the genetic code.

In other words, these random mutations occur often enough in microbes to play a significant role in their ability to survive and adapt.  Some mutations are random "mistakes." They can occur when a microbe is exposed to radiation or chemicals that cause changes in DNA. Microbes, like us, have DNA repair proteins that, like a mini construction crew, work hard to repair any such mistakes. They don't always catch every mistake, however.

Sometimes mutations are harmful and the microbes die off before they can reproduce and pass the mutations on to offspring. But other times a mutation gives rise to a new trait that helps the microbe better survive. An example of this is antibiotic resistance among bacteria. 

Antibiotics (an-tea-bye-ah-ticks) are life-saving drugs that kill bacteria. We discovered and began using them about 60 years ago. In that relatively short amount of time, bacteria have developed new traits through mutations that help protect them against antibiotics—sort of like a helmet protects you against injury.

Antibiotics attack and kill off bacteria
without the mutation...

antibiotics attack bacteria

© Eric MacDicken


The mutated ones survive after the
antibiotics are gone...

mutated bacterium survives attack

© Eric MacDicken


...and reproduce, passing along the mutation
to their offspring...

mutated microbe reproduces

© Eric MacDicken


Eventually there are more antibiotic-resistant
bacteria than non-resistant.

antibiotics powerless against mutated microbes



Save the World Websites

Problems with Solar Power!

Water shortage

-Coral Reefs: papers/Hoegh-Guldberg 1999.pdf#page=9&zoom=auto,27,767

Population Clock - up to the minute population count


Bee Colony Collapse


Anti-biotic Resistant Bacteria

Deforestation -   These two sites are incredible! 

Endangered species   -


 Global Warming

Space Junk


Obesity    (This is incredible data!)

AlamedaCounty Science and Engineering Fair

If you would like to participate in the Alameda County Science and Engineering Fair, join the Science Fair Club!  We meet every Monday from 2:20 to 3:30 in room 30.  The earlier we start our projects, the easier it is to produce a fantastic project.  Our Thornton Science Fair Club has won first and second place ribbons in all of the categories and have sent one team off to the California State Science Fair, twice.  This year, let's set our goals on getting several teams competing at the State level!


Visit the website -  and review the rules and guidelines.


You must register on-line by the end of January.  You need to have your title of your project.  I will be your adult sponsor.  This is the information that you will need:  Jess Norling, e-mail:     Phone:(510) 793-9090  ext 58030


Example Analysis and Conclusion




    Our experiment was to test if different directions affect the amount of voltage a solar panel gains to make energy. For this experiment, my standard of comparison was east. East had produced 3.7 volts of energy. I chose east for my standard of comparison because it was close to the average and the median was 3.75. I have trust in my data because there was not a lot of range, only 0.1 volts. The highest amount of voltage produced was 3.9 by southwest. That is about two tenths more than the standard of comparison. The lowest amount of voltage produced was 3.5 by north and northeast, which was 0.2 less than the standard of comparison. Northwest produced 3.6 volts which is 0.1 volts less than the standard of comparison, while south and southwest both produced 3.9 volts, which is .02 volts higher than the standard of comparison. Southeast and west both produced 3.8 volts, which is 0.1 volts higher than the standard of comparison. On the graph, I see that all the data is below 4 volts. The panels generated between 3.5 to 3.9 volts for all the directions tested. In our experiment, our data contained no outliers. There was a range of 0.4 volts between the experimental groups. The average was close to 3.7. I also noticed the directions south, southeast, and southwest produced the most volts, the trials ranging from 3.6 to 4 volts.


Summary of Observations:

    On the day that we took our observations, it was fairly sunny. There was little or no wind at all. There were many people around the experiment, and they were constantly moving. I also noticed that the volts kept changing, but would always go back to the amount of volts it produced. The solar panel would take about a second to exactly show how much voltage it produced.


    I think south will be the best direction to gain the most amount of voltage. I accept my hypothesis because any direction that was pointing toward the south(including southwest and southeast), had the most amount of voltage than the other directions. South had 3.9 voltage of data along with southwest. Southeast and west both had 3.8 volts. This shows that directions toward the south had the most amount of voltage produced. The lowest number of voltage generated was north and northeast which only produced 3.5 volts on average, because if you face your solar panel toward the north, you are facing it away from the equator. When you face the solar panel towards the south, it is pointing toward the sun because we are in the northern hemisphere, and the equator is in the south. That shows how you need to face it south if you are in the northern hemisphere and north if you are in the southern hemisphere. When I ran this experiment, and faced the solar panel toward the sun, it generated more voltage than when I faced away from the sun. Solar panels are made of silicon which moves around in the panel when sunlight hits it, which creates voltage. When light strikes the cell, a certain portion of it is absorbed within the semiconductor material, which in this case is silicon.This means that the energy of the absorbed light is transferred to the semiconductor which in turn, knocks electrons loose, allowing them to flow freely. These cells, called photovoltaic(PV) cells, contain 1 or more electric fields to have the electrons to flow in one direction, creating a current. You can take that current and power an outside source, like a calculator.  I think that since I did the experiment at around 2:45, the sun was more towards the west because that is where it sets. If I could improve this experiment, I would want to do it at exactly 12:00 because the sun is directly above, not toward the east or the west. Also there were people around so maybe sometimes there may have been a shadow on the solar panel. Next time we should do the experiment in a more open area.


Analysis and Conclusion Computer Template

Analysis (Computer Template)

Write one sentence that describes your experiment, must include the manipulated variable and responding variable.

Write one sentence that describes how you did the standard of comparison. (ex. The plants in the standard of comparison were given pure water.)

Explain what happened to the SOC during the experiment.  You must use numbers, usually just the average unless there was a trial with different results compared to the other SOC trials.  Describe how the responding variable changed as the number on the X-axis increased.   Use numbers to describe the general rate of change, or slope if you are making a multi-line graph only)

Describe the range of the SOC data, to determine how much you trust your data; compare the range to your average, if the range is bigger than your average then you need to have some doubts about your results.

Describe how the “LOW” experimental group was treated in one sentence. (ex. The plants in the one ml experimental group were given one ml of acid)

In the exact same order as the SOC, use words to compare the “LOW” to the SOC and then prove that with number(s) from  your data, compare using percent, difference, 2 times as big, or other mathematical relationships that helps the reader understand the comparison.  Discuss the range.

Describe how the “MEDIUM” experimental group was treated in one sentence. (ex. The plants in the five ml experimental group were given five ml of acid)

In the exact same order as the SOC, use words to compare the “MEDIUM” to the SOC and then prove that with number(s) from  your data, compare using percent, difference, 2 times as big, or other mathematical relationships that helps the reader understand the comparison.  Discuss the range.

Describe how the “HIGH” experimental group was treated in one sentence. (ex. The plants in the ten ml experimental group were given ten ml of acid)

In the exact same order as the SOC, use words to compare the “HIGH” to the SOC and then prove that with number(s) from  your data, compare using percent, difference, 2 times as big, or other mathematical relationships that helps the reader understand the comparison.  Discuss the range.

Describe the general pattern of the graph(s).  You do not need to tell every number, but give the reader enough numbers to understand how much the responding variable increased or decreased for the line(s) on the graph. For a single line graph, give the slope of the line.  If it is a bar graph, just describe what the reader needs to know to understand your conclusion.  This can be quite short.

Describe any data that did not fit, anything weird that you saw.

Write one paragraph with all of your OBSERVATIONS, what you saw, smelled, textures, etc.  Describe anything that might have affected your experiment like the weather, animals, little brothers knocking everything down.

Conclusion (Computer Template)

State your hypothesis.

State whether you accept or reject your hypothesis. 

State the first reason that supports your claim.

Explain using specific evidence from your data, graphs and observations.  You must use numbers.

State the second reason that supports your claim.

Explain using specific evidence from your data, graphs and observations.  You must use numbers.

State the third reason that supports your claim.

Explain using specific evidence from your data, graphs and observations.  You must use numbers.

Explain what you think happened in the experiment.

Describe any problems with the experiment and/or any reasons we should doubt the data.

Describe how you could improve this experiment if you ran it again.

Restate your main idea that you want the reader to agree with. 


Cool Science Fair Data Websites

Problems with Solar Power!

Water shortage

-Coral Reefs: papers/Hoegh-Guldberg 1999.pdf#page=9&zoom=auto,27,767

Population Clock - up to the minute population count


Bee Colony Collapse


Anti-biotic Resistant Bacteria

Deforestation -   These two sites are incredible! 

Endangered species   -


 Global Warming

Space Junk


Obesity    (This is incredible data!)

7th Grade Honors Science Syllabus
Elementary DNA Video

Science and Engineering Practices

  1. Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering)

2. Developing and using models

3. Planning and carrying out investigations

4. Analyzing and interpreting data

5. Using mathematics and computational thinking

 6. Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering)

7. Engaging in argument from evidence

8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information


These are the exact skills that employers are looking for!

Future City Ideas 2016

Harvesting energy from thermal collecting toilet seat.

Plants are watered and runoff powers hydro electric turbines

Grocery – with a garden/greenhouse, all rotting food composted, layered plants rotating for sunlight.  Open windows providing light inside, 


Underwater turbines in currents. 

Kitchen could reuse waste heat for energy.

Water spins turbine in anyplace that it falling  sink, shower, toilets, rain, rain gutters, waterfalls, currents, amusement parks, water slides

Playground – any repetitive motion – spinny thingy.

Glass contains that can be refilled/reused hundreds of times.  Milk, soda, juice

Wind turbines hanging from the ceiling.

Mouth turbines, shoe generators, scuba bubble turbine, musical instruments.

CO2 from our breath given to the plants – give plants the spectrum of light that they need – use the rest for energy.


Invisible. Glass, clear plastic windmills.


Could greenhouse glass have clear solar panels

Beautiful colorful solar panels that  decorate.  Stained glass solar panels.

Fountains – turn turbines

Park bench that collects thermal energy.


Glass elevator / atrium that provides light for the lobby.

Stationary bike/ all exercise equipment – spiral stair case with  steps that rise as you push the lower one down.

Slides – with special mats to produce electricity.

Revolving door that produces energy when it turns


Swimming pool – people swimming make energy, hot tub jets.

5th period ideas

Power doors – to make electricity

All gym equipment filters water, pump water

Hand crank  that can be attached to anything to produce power


Reuse water from showers after filtration.

Using waste from crops as biomass to make energy

Put parts of buildings underground to save space and make heat pumps

Nuclear fusion –power

Modular furniture

Solar panels on car roofs

Grocery store – shelves making electricity, shopping cart wheels make energy

Generators in the pool so all wave action leads to energy.

Stadiums – body heat, noise/ clapping, stomping, the wave, the players, solar panels on the stadium, from the rotating going in thingy thing, LED lights, chairs, the ball

Exercise machines make energy, garbage makes energy

Methane from all bathroom waste.

Solar panels as shade – windows blinds, bus stops, picnic tables, path shades,  car parks, park benches, gazeebos

Windmills between tall buildings

Tooth brush energy

Glass building in natural areas so that we don’t disturb animals.

Special slipper to absorb heat energy from sand at the beach.

Sidewalks generate energy, glow in the dark plants

Solar panels on windmills, trains, trucks, roads.

Putting solar panels on plants

Turbines in rivers, toilets, any place there is running water.


Solar plane


6th period

Solar powered train

Floor tiles that produce energy

Building made out of solar panels – wind mills every where we can

Nano generator – that can turn all human motion into energy – even breathing, shoes

Hydroelectrictronic -  using any running water to produce energy

Layered gardens – stacked up so that we can rotate for sunlight, drip systems to conserve water,

Windows, window blinds out of solar panels,

Beds – heat produces energy


Solar desalination

Multileveled orchard,

Pesticide Resistance

Pesticide Resistance in Insects from


Many things can affect crop yield, the amount of a crop that is produced in a growing season. Bad weather and pests are the two primary factors that can negatively affect a farmer’s season. While farmers cannot control the weather, they can use pesticides to control weeds, insects, and plant diseases on their farms. Pesticides are specially- formulated chemicals that suppress or kill plant pests that can damage crops.


Main idea: ________________________________________________________________

Detail: ___________________________________________________________________

Detail: ___________________________________________________________________

Detail: ___________________________________________________________________


There is a large variety of pesticide products available, and pesticides have been widely used by farmers over the past several decades. However, some pesticides have become less effective over time. This is due to the development of resistance to pesticide chemicals within the pest population.  Let’s consider insect pests. Some insects are naturally susceptible to a pesticide, while others naturally possess some amount of genetic resistance. When a pesticide is applied, the susceptible insects are killed but the resistant insects are not. These resistant insects are then able to reproduce and pass down their resistance genes to their offspring. As this cycle continues, that insect population eventually becomes entirely resistant, and pesticides that were once effective have no further action on the insect population. In summary, over several generations natural selection can cause a population to evolve and become almost entirely resistant to a pesticide. 


Main idea: ________________________________________________________________

Detail: ___________________________________________________________________

Detail: ___________________________________________________________________

Detail: ___________________________________________________________________

Explain what is happening in this picture:





Save the World Tips

What am I looking for in a "A+" Save The World Project?

* The drawings are illustrating all of the information in the writing.


1.  The world problem is clearly described.  Think What, Where, When, Why, How

* The reader should have a clear idea of how big and how serious this problem is.

* There should be numbers that describe the size of the problem, the cost in money, the numbers of people and animals affected.

*  Explain how this problem is increasing, (if it is).

*  Just the description of the problem should take 3 to 6 panels of the comic.

2.  Describe who is being affected by this world problem.

*  The reader should have a clear idea of  Who is affect by this world problem.

*  Describe some specific examples of how people, animals and/or plants are affected by this world problem.

*  If there are specific locations where this problem is extremely bad, you should talk about how life there will be affected.

3. Explain what is causing this world problem.

*  The reader should be able to explain the causes, be sure to carefully explain and draw any word that most  students do not know.

*  It is important to really explain the causes completely.  The next project will look at the solutions.  We need to understand the causes very well to figure out the solutions.

*  Add more specific details, specific examples, show your understanding.


Check out how fire works from How stuff works

How Stuff Works is a fantastic site.  Use this link to learn what happens with things burn.

Contact Information

The easiest way to contact me is through the School Loop e-mail.  It is very important that you write your child's full name and class period on the subject line.  There are many students with the same name.

You may also call me after school, again, it is very important to say your child's full name and class period.  Please say your phone number very  clearly.  Phone: (510) 793-9090  ext. 58021

Science Alert
    labeled cell